Microscopic histological analysis is a necessary tool for the paleopathologist, as it provides reliable results in cases of pseudopathology, helping the researcher to distinguish between the taphonomic and pathological skeletal alterations and study bone microarchitecture and structure (Schultz 2003).

There are several methods for the production of thin ground sections. Regarding the archaeological bones, the production of thin ground sections from undecalcified bones using a grinder is considered the most satisfactory method (Stout & Teitelbaum 1992, Schultz 2001, Haas & Stora 2015, Garcia-Donas et al. 2017). The specimen, after being cut, is placed in a moulder end embedded in epoxy resin under vacuum conditions, until it hardens into a resin block. Using a cutting machine equipped with diamond blades, the block is cut and then grinded using a grinding machine, until a translucent thin ground section is produced. Finally, the thin ground section is stained using special staining substances (haematoxylin and eosin). After staining, the thin ground section can be inspected under a plane or polarized light microscope, in order to study the bone microarchitecture and structure.